Expected Impacts

The IMPRESSIVE project has been designed to reach – and even go beyond – the expected impacts set out in the Work Programme. More precisely, the IMPRESSIVE project will reach the impacts listed in the call as follow:

Impacts directly mentioned in the “Expected Impact” section of the call:

Transparent and visually non-intrusive PV windows” (SO1, SO2, SO3 & SO4)

The IMPRESSIVE project focuses on the developing of transparent cells without any coloration allowing the visible light to pass through unhampered. To achieve this goal, the consortium will work on the dye-sensitised and perovskite technologies. The main objective of IMPRESSIVE is to develop a photovoltaic module with at least AVT > 55% of transparency.

Cut down on air conditioning needs, further reducing energy use and operating costs in buildings

The IMPRESSIVE project aims to absorb all photons of the NIR part of the light (700 950nm) which is responsible for heating buildings through the windows. A smart disposition of the IMPRESSIVE solution would allow to decrease the amount of energy received behind the glass, thus offering a smart way to decrease air conditioning utilisation besides producing electricity.

Impacts expected in the call from the “Scope” section of the call:

Strong exploitation plan presenting business opportunities and impact potential

The project will provide the BIPV industry with IMPRESSIVE transparent PV modules. The impact on the business of HG is potentially huge. Based upon several literature references, HG identified an average annual market volume of about 15 million m2 of newly erected or renovated South-oriented parapet area (i.e. non-window) for Germany, France, Italy and Spain alone. This means a market potential of 1.9 billion € at HG targeted module price of 100 €/m2 for these four countries alone and about 10 billion € worldwide.

Glass sealing technology and large module sizes would enable the company to meet the market demand for large units in high surface area architectural projects. Currently, HG is completing a series of tests for IEC 61646 certification. One customer out of 3 asks HG if they can deliver modules without any colour especially for large glass area construction used in the building sector. With its coloured semi-transparent panels HG product is used already in building envelop to complement the energy production. The IMPRESSIVE project will contribute positively to 1/3rd of HG’s turnover if the objectives are successfully reached.

Assumptions and details of calculations

All assumptions and expectations related to the impact “Transparent and visually nonintrusive PV windows” Concept with the description of the technologies and their theoretical and real PCE based on their absorption spectrum, their AVT, their Voc, Jsc and FF.

Power absorption in the NIR part of the spectrum (W/m2 of window)

With the assumption of an irradiance at 1000W/m2 (A.M.1.5G conditions), the PCE of 8% of the DSSC would lead to a power absorption of the window of 80 W/m2. This energy captured by the window will not participate to the heating of the room. In addition the TCO covered glass will reflect all the incident IR light above 1200 nm acting as a heat shield.

Energy savings in south-oriented façade buildings in South of Europe (kWh/m2/year)

In average, the cumulated irradiation received in Europe per year is around 1500 kWh/m2. Based on this number, and knowing that the IR in the sunlight represents more than half its energy, it can be approximated that about 700kWh/m2/year will be absorbed by the IMPRESSIVE technology’s window and thus not enter the buildings. This is the amount of energy that will not need to be dissipated through air conditioning.

Thus, using a EER (Energy Efficiency Ration) of 3 for a AC system, 1kWh of electricity used by the AC would lead to 3kWh of heat reduction, at minimum the IMPRESSIVE solution would lead to 233kWh/m2/year of energy savings by not using the AC. As a concrete example, for an average height business building with a façade of 20 000m2 with 5000m2 of South exposition, it would lead to more than 1TWh of savings per year.

Operating costs savings in south-oriented façade buildings (EUR/m2/year)

Based on the previous assumptions and calculation, it is safe to estimate that 233kWh/m2/year can be saved. Taking an average price of electricity of 0.15EUR/kWh, and not even taking into account the costs of changing AC parts and maintenance, it would already save 35EUR/m2/year. For the building taken as example in the previous calculation with 20 000m2 if façades, it would lead to 150 000 EUR of energy saving per year.

Turnover for this technology 1 year, respectively 5 years, after the end of the project (kEUR)

1 year after the project it is expected to be the first step of commercialisation. With a price target at 100 EUR/m2, and a first estimation of 100 m2 sold in the first year, that would lead to 10 kEUR of turnover. 5 years after the end of the project, it is expected that the technology will have skyrocketed and that 5000 m2 of transparent panels will be sold, leading to 500 kEUR of turnover

Share of the worldwide transparent PV market penetrated 1 year after the project’s end (%)

The assumption behind the 100% of market share 1 year after the project is that the IMPRESSIVE module will be the only fully transparent module reaching 12% of efficiency on the market. This ground-breaking technology will be ahead of its time and will only be caught up a few years later.

Share of the worldwide transparent PV market penetrated 5 year after the project’s end (%)

After 5 years, it is expected that some other companies will have found other or similar technologies that will reach the same results. However, the advance taken by IMPRESSIVE as well as the continuous improvements will probably allow to stay leader on the fully transparent PV market.

Share of the worldwide transparent and semi-transparent PV market penetrated 5 years after the project’s end (%)

Based on its enormous market potential and the fact that it will be the first solution in the market to be fully transparent and with such efficiency, it is expected that 5 years after the project end, the market of transparent as well as semi-transparent PV panel will be switch rapidly towards fully transparent PV and thus towards IMPRESSIVE solution. The semi-transparent PV panels will still be relevant and have stronger ties with the market but it is expected that 20% of market share can be reached. The strong presence of HG in the semi-transparent PV market will foster drastically this possibility.

Other impacts

  • Reduction of CO2 emissions due to the energy production avoided. This will be detailed in the LCA done during the project.

  • The conversion of NIR-part of the light through dye-sensitised solar cells technology has the potential to bring the technology of DSSC at the level of silicon PV, namely 20% power conversion efficiency in combination with the classical visible dye-sensitised solar cells technology, thus opening widely a new whole PV sector.

  • European leadership will be strongly enhanced by this project that will be world leader in fully transparent solar cells by reaching the ground-breaking PCE of 14%. Provided that the uptake market is successful as planned, this is expected to create thousands of job in the EU and place the EU at the centre of renewable energy innovation.

  • Active participation to the Sustainable Development Goals of the UN notably through priority, Affordable and clean energy, Industry, innovation and infrastructure, Sustainable cities and communities and Climate action.

  • Active participation to EU objectives:

    1. IMPRESSIVE participates in reaching the target of the 2030 Energy strategy, notably 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels and at least 27% share of renewable energy consumption
    2. According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU, all new buildings must be nearly zero-energy buildings by 31 December 2020. IMPRESSIVE participates to this objective.
    3. IMPRESSIVE participates in key actions of the integrated SET-Plan, namely 1. Develop performant renewable technologies integrated in the energy system and 5. Develop energy efficient materials and technologies for buildings. Moreover, the project is included in one of the seven implementation plans that have been adopted, namely Photovoltaic Energy.